Diagnosis of any of the principal sub-types of IVM:
- Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
- Dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF), including carotid-cavernous fistulae
- Cavernous malformation (CM), with or without a venous malformation
Age 16 years or over at the time of diagnosis
Permanently resident in Scotland at the time of diagnosis
Date of diagnosis (by imaging or histology) 1st January 1999 -- 31st December 2003, or 1st January 2006 -- 31st December 2010.
For the purposes of SAIVMs, a participant is defined an 'incident case' at the time a diagnostic image (computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), or catheter angiogram) or diagnostic pathological examination (biopsy or autopsy) is performed. If there was a clinical suspicion of an IVM prior to this time, or symptoms antedated diagnosis by many years, the time of the diagnostic image or histology is still the time at which someone is 'incident' for this register. Certainty of diagnosis is established by our register's consultant neuroradiologist(s) who review the diagnostic imaging, thereby creating 'definite' / 'probable' / 'possible' subsets of included participants.
Participant does not opt out of data collection for this audit.